Windows systems is the part that gives you a graphical interface on your monitor and allows the user to configure all connected devices. Application software are the programs and applications that are developed to carry out desired functions by the user. The way an application works is through programming software. Programming software is the middle man between the system and the actual application the user wants to run. Some examples of application software are web browsers and video games. Computers are nothing without the people that use them, the common user and the professional. The common user is anyone that uses the computer for general purposes.
This includes checking emails, playing computer games, typing up a paper, and the list goes on. What distinguishes a common user from a professional is that a professional works in the field of computer information technology. Examples of professions in this field are a computer programmer, web designer, network administrator, and software engineer. These are but a few of the many jobs involved in the field of computer information technology. These are the people that design the hardware to build computers, they keep business networks secure, they program software to communicate effectively with the user and hardware, and develop the latest and greatest software for the common user to enjoy.
An embedded computer is a mini computer with a specific function within a product that completes detailed tasks or jobs for that product. Often times, individuals do not realize how many objects have embedded computers enclosed in them. Some examples of embedded computers used in households include, remote controls, heating pads, digital clocks, washing machines, and microwaves. Others include Bluetooth capabilities in cars, camera traffic lights, and Red Box machines. Surprisingly, a pregnancy test is also considered a simple, yet complicated embedded computer.
So how does an embedded computer work? To put it into simple terms, an embedded computer is a computing chip rooted directly onto its motherboard or logic board. Before embedded computers were invented, a computing chip would be connected via wires to the motherboard, which would then be connected via more wires to the RAM and other peripherals. This not only made the interior of any computing device look like an absolute mess, but it was incredibly inefficient and performance was never what it could have been given the capacities of the components involved.
The advantages of the embedded computers are that the bussing speed for data has greatly improved over externally transported components due to the minimal amount of physical distance data needs to travel. It was considered to be one of the highest risks in the Apollo project since it was newly developed, but since then it has been proven to be more efficient.
These embedded computer systems are used in all areas of life, and can be found anywhere from cooking and consumer functions to medical and military tasks. A mobile device is a handheld tablet or other device that is made for portability, and is therefore both compact and lightweight. New data storage, processing and display technologies have allowed these small devices to do nearly anything that had previously been traditionally done with larger personal computers.
With our ever-growing world of technology, mobile devices are at the tips of our fingers. Questions can be answered, maps can be observed, and weather can be checked. Of the many mobile devices used today, smartphones are the most common form of device. They have Internet capabilities along with the extensive list above. Tablet devices do not have all the capabilities smartphones have, but they are used for Web browsing, gaming, taking digital photos, and playing movies as well as TV shows.
This shows how technology will keep improving, to become the some of the most widely used devices around. One of the drawbacks to some of the newer mobile devices is their use of non removable batteries. These batteries are designed to make the device more light weight. Although they are made to last for the duration of the computers life, there are instances when they fail. If this happens, it can be pricy and difficult for them to be replaced. Because of this, it is not uncommon for a user to simply throw the device away rather than spend the time or money to fix it.
This has resulted in a big increase in what is known as e-trash, or electronic trash. Adding to this problem is the fact that these devices often contain toxic and harmful chemicals and eventually end up in landfills that are not able to dispose of them properly. Much of these devices make their way to countries with less standards and regulations for waste management, giving way to environmentally unfriendly and dangerous practices.
This leads to toxic and lethal chemicals entering the air and water. Certain organizations such as Clean Production Action and Greenpeace have developed programs to attempt to persuade manufactures to stop using hazardous chemicals in their products. Unfortunately it may already be too late to reverse the damages done from e-waste.
It is essential for the well being of this planet that mobile devices and other computer equipment are disposed of properly. A personal computer is a computer that is mainly for individual use. Before personal computers, computers were designed for companies who would then attach terminals that would allow for more than one user to a single large computer and the resources were shared among all users. The first personal computers came out around the s. In , IBM came out with its first personal computer. IBM PC took over the market and it was what most people bought.
Personal computers use single-user systems and are based on microprocessors. It also contains two types of memory; main memory and auxiliary memory. The sales of personal computers has grown tremendously over the years, according to Michael Dell in there were million personal computers sold worldwide. Midrange servers were also known as midrange computers or minicomputers in s and were mostly sold to small and medium-sized businesses.
However, midrange servers started to become popular in the s. Midrange servers are used to host data and programs for networks, such as in hospitals or school computer labs. Midrange servers stand in between entry-level servers and mainframe computers. The big difference between midrange servers and mainframe computers is that the midrange servers function as stand-alone personal computers where mainframes are a network hosts.
Midrange servers tend to have more memory capacity, such as random access memory RAM , processing power have multiple processors , room for expansion have comparably large hard drives , and are more expensive than desktop computers. Another type of midrange servers is a special home server that can be build or purchase when personal computer is not enough. Special home server links all the content from all the computers onto one network. It involves splitting hard drives and creating two separate hard drives. It can also involve server virtualization which is splitting the physical server into smaller virtual servers.
Each virtual server can run multiple operating system requests at the same time. Virtualizing servers is the best solution for small and medium-scale applications. Mainframe Computers are much larger computers that consolidate the needs of large organizations like universities, hospitals, banks, government offices, etc. These much more powerful and expensive computers are usually stored in data centers where they connect to all the other computers using a computer network. From this room a single mainframe can serve thousands of users on the same network.
Early mainframe computers were first produced in the s due to the increasing processing demands of growing businesses. From then on, these mainframes have increased in power and improved in size. Manufacturers also began bundling free software with their mainframe computers as an incentive to help compete against other computer manufacturers.
Eventually, a lot of these programs and several new ones were offered as separate products that they could sell rather than just giving them away for free. Mainframe computers may be good for having one space to collect data for a company. They are also known as high end servers, or enterprise class servers. The mainframe computer at IBM has , virtual servers and is actually very economically efficient, and more and more of businesses are trying to make them the most energy efficient as possible.
The mainframe computers need a large enough space to be located for one, since they are used for large business responsibilities, such as computing data for a census, statistics, and economic processing. They are also used for payroll and billing but are constantly running day and night with different tasks to complete all the time. The type of tasks this computer does allow for them to operate for a long time with no interruptions. Mainframe computers are also very expensive. Having to find a way to cool a mainframe computer is difficult just because of their size alone.
The other problem with the computers is that they are also expensive to even run, again because of their size. The amount of electricity to cool and run the mainframe computers makes them not the most energy efficient machine to have in a business. Now that you know the history of how the internet came to be, it's time to start exploring. You double-click your browser of choice, the screen opens up Just take a deep breath; using the internet isn't as complicated as you might think. The most important thing to understand before you start browsing through the cornucopia of online resources is the URL, Uniform Resource Locator.
The URL uniquely identifies a specific Web page. If you want to have your own website, you have to buy the domain name and then build upon your address. Unfortunately, this means you can't ever own the domain name www. In today's technologically booming society, there are hundreds of ways we are connected to computers and the Internet every day. We use computer networks collections of computers and other devices that are connected together to enable users to share multiple forms of information  on a daily basis. While it is not always free to do so, such as having to pay an Internet service provider ISP , there are many places that offer free wifi to people in their area.
Today, we mostly use networks for social media, communication, and spreading of information. Think of the networks in your life. I'm guessing something like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or LinkedIn came to mind along with many others . These are all networks that allow us to share information whether it be personal, images, news stories, surveys, information on new products, etc. Another way we use the Internet for communication is through email. Most people today have an email address because they are required for registration for many different things we use on a daily basis such as the networks previously listed .
Usernames for e-mails have to be unique to ensure that every person in the world that wants to be on the Internet can have e-mail. In the past, blank spaces were not allowed in a username but some companies do allow it now. One symbol that is still not allowed in a username is the symbol, because it could be confused with the same symbol that separates the username and domain name.
An example of this is Drupal. Today's evolving technology is making it easier to access things like networks and email through all of the mobile devices available and the use of apps or condensed mobile versions of the full desktop websites. Besides the obvious social uses of e-mail communication, they are now being used to help college campuses communicate with their students to help alert the students of an emergency like a tornado, dangerous lightning storm, flood warning, or if an intruder is on the campus.
All in all, the Internet and computer have changed our world in forms of communication. The lowest level 4 corresponds to the physical and data link layer model OSI. The next level level 3 - is the level of interconnection, which is engaged in the transmission of packets using a variety of transport technologies of local networks, regional networks, special communication lines, and so on.
As the main network layer protocol in terms of the model OSI IP, which was originally designed to transmit packets through the many numbers of networks, combined both local and global protocols. Therefore, the IP protocol works well in networks with complex topologies using rationally presence of subsystems and economically consuming bandwidth low-speed communication lines. The IP protocol is a datagram protocol, which means it does not guarantee delivery of packets to the destination node, but trying to do it.
The last protocol is designed to share information about errors between routers and network node. Level 2 is called the primary. TCP provides the guaranteed delivering of the information and usually is being used by applications if data integrity and accuracy are critical. The UDP is being used for a non-guaranteed transmitting. The upper level 1 is the application level. Our generation strives to be the quick paced society which we are known to be.
To do so, our generation uses computers to their full potential in order to do more tasks and to do them at a faster pace. Computers benefit the business and personal world by being able to do the following more efficiently: buying and selling products, communicating throughout the world, enhancing our knowledge, job influences, entertainment, research, and paying bills.
Computers also benefit society with the enhancement of knowledge of medicine which creates more effective treatments for a healthier and longer life. Computers are improving healthcare through robotics and research. We communicate operation results and any surgical problems easily and immediately between healthcare providers all over the world. In the past, school was a physical building we had to attend. Today, we can "attend" school completely online, never having to step foot outside of our homes, or attend both online and on a college campus in what is known as a blended course.
We are able to invest our time differently and accomplish more. The convenience of computers is that we are able to access the computer 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and days a year. This gives our society time to expand our knowledge and create new opportunities for our selves. In the end, being able to communicate and engage in this fast-paced manner enhances productivity levels by a great amount. One area this advancement of computers has immensely impacted is the business field. All businesses use computers to keep track of accounts, money, or make transactions.
Another field that has come a long way since the production of computers is the entertainment area. Without the exceptional special effects put into an action movie with the help of our advanced technology, the audience would most likely not enjoy the show, resulting in the potential collapse of the entertainment business.
For example, imagine watching the epic science fiction film, Avatar , but without any special effects put into it…it certainly would not be as entertaining as the power of computers transformed it to be. Hence, computers are able to keep both consumers and sellers satisfied, while still continuing to integrate into the everyday lives of average individuals. With any benefits, there comes a disadvantage. As for computers, there have been problems with excessive use, security and privacy issues and the problem with a dominant culture.
With any product, any excessive use is bad; in this case the excessive use of the computer may result in a lack of human communication for face to face conversation and more communication through the computer. To further add, people have the accessibility to abuse their time whereas people tend to be more attentive to their internet accesses and making the computer a time-consuming product.
Many of the security and privacy concerns stem from the fact that a lot of our personal business takes place online. One example of a security risk today is malware. Malware can be accidentally installed onto your computer by clicking on a link on a Web page or e-mail message that contains a malware program, such as a computer virus. Once a malware program is successfully installed, it will typically erase data or bog down the computer, but it can also a steal sensitive data from the computer such as passwords or credit card numbers.
To fight against malware, a wide variety of security software can be installed which will notify and block any attempts of malware trying to gain access to a computer. Another very common security risk is identity theft. Identity theft is when someone else gains access to your personal information and uses your identity to purchase goods or services.
A popular way for identity thieves to steal personal information is phishing, a fraudulent e-mail or website that appears like a legitimate business in order to obtain Social Security numbers or other information needed for identity theft. Lastly, societies throughout the world compete with one another for the latest technology, pitting countries against each other, While competition can be a good thing, tension and competition.
It is obvious that, as the computer has evolved, our communication processes through it have as well. Emails and social networks have quickly become the telephone of the past; these tools are not only used in the personal world, but in the business world as well. However, though computers make it easy and drastically more convenient to communicate with people, it is important to follow a few simple guidelines and watch the tone while talking. These guidelines have come to be known as netiquette. Netiquette simply establishes what is and what is not acceptable when involved in online communications.
One needs to remember that though it may not be face-to-face, they are still interacting with a human being. Act kind, courteously, professionally, and respectfully. And how can you adjust your tone of voice when communicating by typing? Simply remember to NOT use all caps, which denotes yelling, and watch your use of exclamation points.
Too often exclamation points are used when a simple period is best. It is an inevitable fact that, with increasing online communications, there is almost always going to be a sense of anonymity. Like almost anything in the world, this can be used for both good and bad purposes. Online, one can be who they want to be. They can have a secret identity, they can make unknown usernames, and they can say the things they want without feeling the judgment of others upon them.
This can be used for good if it is for true, honest, and legitimate opinions. Examples of this are reviews, discussions, blogs, and important emails. The freedom of being a faceless commentator makes the individual feel comfortable expressing how they truly feel. However, it is important not to abuse this anonymity. People often use it to insult, harm, or coerce others into fraud. It is essential that one learns how to properly and respectfully use this gift of obscurity without abusing it.
Diving deeper into the aspect of anonymity on the Internet, we see the need for anonymity and accountability. Users need to be anonymous in regards to personal information, such as credit card information but need to be accountable for what they say online. Accountability means that anyone that partakes in misconduct online will be identified and be responsible for the consequences.
David Davenport, an assistant professor in the Computer Engineering department at Bilkent University, explains that allowing anonymous communication online ensures that users of the Internet become unaccountable for what they say. He believes that free speech is not hindered if users are identifiable online. One reason for anonymity is the need for information privacy, which refers to the rights of individuals and companies to control how information about them is collected and used. If everyone online could see the credit card number or the physical address of individual Internet users then no one would be safe.
Professor Davenport explains the need for anonymity in protecting personal information and for accountability in identifying users that partake in criminal acts online. Perhaps, in the future, as technology improves and is increasingly able to identity persons of malicious intent then anonymity will not be such a concern.
A White Paper on Controlled Digital Lending of Library Books
Due to the relative ease of accessing virtually any sort of information on the internet, every user will encounter the scenario of verifying the credibility of that piece of information. It is estimated that there are over billion web pages, yet search engines cover less than a quarter of that figure. This leads to the fact that the internet is bound to provide both accurate and inaccurate information, which therefore places the responsibility of validating what was found on the user.
Users would purposefully make false claims relating to that article for entertainment, and this constant abuse of the system inevitably led to a somewhat damaged reputation for the reliability of the site. However, over the years, Wikipedia has improved itself with updated methods of deterring vandalism to provide for more accurate information.
Wikipedia is only one site of billions, though. To obtain reliable information means for a user of the internet to question literally every site. Authority relates directly to the source of the information on that page. A user must take into consideration who is creating the information and the associations of the author s to other persons or groups e.
URL, reputation, expertise. Next, coverage questions the depth of the relevant information. This requires the user to examine the page and determine whether the information is actually useful or not. Objectivity is another crucial component because it examines inherent bias that authors use to further their goals. The information must be factual instead of distorted to persuade the user into taking a side.
Accuracy is arguably the most important because it tests the validity of the information. For example, if the page contains a claim that completely contradicts the scientific community, it might be good reason to determine that everything else be read with a skeptical mindset. Lastly, currency examines how up-to-date the page is compared to the present time. If there are multiple updates frequently with links that are still alive that is, they do not redirect the user to a dead page then the user can feel confident that the author is providing information that is relevant to today.
A component in the computer that transmits signals through copper wires to all the components in the computer. Input Devices 2. Application Software 3. Open Source Software 4. Freeware 5. Computer Case 6. Binary Code 7. Embedded Computers 9. Hard Drive Disks Computer Data MotherBoard Most computers are digital computers which use a specific language to communicate within itself in order to process information.
If there are programs running in the background or a person is typing up a word document for example, the computer needs to be able to interpret the data that is being put into it by the human as well as communicate to working components within itself. This language that digital computers use is called binary code and is a very basic form of language composed of only two figures; 1 and 0. Whereas the English language is composed of 26 figures which we commonly call the alphabet, computers use a language composed of only two figures, hence its name "binary code".
These 1's and 0's are referred to as "bits" - which are known as the smallest unit of data that a binary computer can recognize. They are found through every action, memory, storage, or computation that is done through a computer, such as creating a document, opening a web browser, or downloading media. In order to comply with more actions memory or storage, bits must compound together to form a larger unit referred to as "bytes".
Bytes are commonly used when referring to the size of the information being provided. For example, a song that is downloaded may contain several kilobytes or perhaps even a few megabytes if it is a whole c. Likewise, pictures and all other documents in general are stored on the computer based on their size or amount of bytes they contain. The amount of information that can be stored onto a computer is also shown or displayed in bytes as is the amount left on a computer after certain programs or documents have been stored.
Since bytes can be extremely long, we have come up with prefixes that signify how large they are. These prefixes increase by three units of ten so that a Kilobyte represents 1, bytes, a Megabyte represents 1,, bytes or one million bytes, a Gigabyte represents 1,,, or one billion bytes, etc.
Computers components have become so small that we can now store larger and larger amounts of data bytes in the same size computers resulting in the use of other larger prefixes such as Tera, Peta, Exa, Zetta, and Yotta. Below is a chart outlining the name of the prefix used and powers of ten they symbolize. Digital Data Representation, otherwise known as how the computer interprets data, is a key concept to understanding computer data processing, as well as overall functioning. Data is represented by particular coding systems.
The computer recognizes coding systems- rather than letters or phrases that the user of a computer views. The actual process of the computer understanding coding systems is called digital data representation. A digital computer operates by understanding two different states, on or off. The binary code is a very basic coding system for computers to comprehend.
An advantage to digital data computing lies behind the binary coding systems. Although the binary code has become decreasingly popular in the professional, recreational fields due to an increase in technology, they still provide a use in programming. Digital data creates a simple way to duplicate and transfer information accurately from computer to computer, which is why it is still used today.
Bytes, on the other hand, consist of groupings of multiple groupings of bits. Bytes allow the computer hardware to work more quickly and efficiently. Representing data in a way that can be understood by a digital computer is called Digital Representation and Binary Code is the most commonly used form of this. Binary Code is a Numerical Representation of data that uses only 1 and 0 to represent every possible number. Mathematics uses 10 symbols ranging from 1 TO 0 and include 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 as well. This Numerical Representation of data is called the decimal numbering system because it uses ten symbols.
As shown on the chart, the prefix deci symbolizes ten. In both systems, the position of each digit determines to which power that number is raised. However, since Binary Code only operates with two symbols, each digit is a power of two instead of ten. Because the Binary system takes advantage of so few symbols, the result is that more positions for digits are used to express the same number than in decimal form, leaving long lines of information for even the simplest expressions.
ASCII uses a 7 bit code, though there is an extended code which adds an extra bit, which nearly doubles the amount of unique characters the code can represent. With over one million different possibilities, every language can be represented with this code, every mathematical symbol can be represented, every punctuation mark, and every symbol or sign from any culture. Unicode is universal. ASCII is known as the alphabet code, and its numbering codes range from 0 all the way to considered to be a 7 bit code.
These codes apply to binary coding systems, meaning the computer understands two states of either On or Off. The problem with Unicode is that it is not compatible with each computer system used today. While Unicode is a huge improvement for coding systems today, it cannot process all symbols that are possible, leaving room for new systems to one day take its place. One type of multimedia data is graphics data. These data are of still images, and can be stored in the form of a bitmap image file.
A bitmap image is a type of graphic that contains pixels, or picture elements, that are arranged in a grid-like pattern. Although there are a few other key factors when determining the detail quality of an image, pixels play an important role. An image with many pixels allows there to be more potential of higher quality in that image. Today, an average person wishing to take decent and basic everyday pictures will be satisfied with about an 8 megapixel camera. In fact, many new smartphone cameras use 16 megapixels, like the HTC Titan 2, a popular smartphone released in April, Someone with different intentions of using images, perhaps for making high definition prints, will require a camera with more megapixels.
This would allow for their prints to be large, but with appropriate and exceptional quality. Audio Data is very similar to graphics data in that it is understood in pieces. Instead of using pixels, however, audio data uses samples. Audio data is usually recorded with an input device such as a microphone or a MIDI controller. Samples are then taken from the recording thousands of times every second and when they are played back in the same order, they create the original audio file.
Because there are so many samples within each sound file, files are often compressed into formats such as MP3 or MP4 so that they take up less storage space. This makes them easier to download, send over the internet, or even store on your MP3 player. Video data is also similar to graphic and audio data, but instead of using pixels or samples, video data is recorded with the use of frames.
Frames are still images that are taken numerous times per second and that when played simultaneously, create a video most films are recorded using twenty-four frames per second. Inside the system unit contains the motherboard. The motherboard is the "glue" of the computer. It connects the CPU, memory, hard drive, optical drives, video card, and sound card together. The front of the motherboard are peripheral card slots. The slots contain different types of cards which are connected to the motherboard. The left side of the motherboard contain ports. The ports connect to the monitor, printer, keyboard, mouse, speakers, phone line, and network cables.
Like many of the components of computers, motherboards have not always been as advanced as they are today. Motherboards on early PCs did not have many integrated parts located directly on the board. Instead, most of the devices, such as display adapters and hard disk controllers, were connected through expansion slots.
As technology advanced, more and more devices were built in directly to the board itself. At first, this began to create problems as manufacturers began to find that if one of the devices on the motherboard was faulty or in some way damaged, that the entire motherboard must be replaced.
This led manufactures to change the design in a way that allowed them to remove faulty parts easily and replace them, especially parts that are growing and changing so quickly, such as the RAM or CPU. Today, a motherboard comes equipped with many parts working in conjunction with each other. One can find anything, from back up batteries, keyboard and mouse connectors, to cache memory chips, in close proximity to the CPU. The computer is able to do tasks faster as its components continue to be closer to one another.
The advancement of technology has allowed for these parts to become smaller and more powerful, allowing more surface area on the motherboard to fit more devices. It is common today to find even audio and video components built into it as well. With technology moving as fast as it is, one may wonder what a motherboard will be capable of containing in the near future.
An expansion card, also known as an expansion board, adapter card, or accessory board, is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot on the motherboard to add functionality to a computer system. Each type of expansion card has a self-explanatory name and all serve the same purpose of adding functionality to the computer.
The audio card is responsible for producing sound that is then transferred to speakers or headphones. Commonly audio cards are built onto the motherboard, however, they can be purchased separately. The graphics card turns the data produced by a CPU to an image that is able to be seen on a computer's display. Along with the audio card, graphics cards are commonly built onto the motherboard, yet graphics card that produce higher resolution images can be bought separately. Lastly, the network card is an expansion card that connects the computer to a computer network.
This allows for a computer to exchange data with the computer network through a commonly used number of protocols called IEEE After ten months of Faggin and his colleagues working on the chip, it was released by Intel Corporation in January Even though this first generation, 4-bit microprocessor could only add and subtract, it was a major breakthrough in technology. The amazing quality was that all of the processing was done on one chip, as opposed to prior computers which had a collection of chips wired together. This invention lead to the first portable electronic calculator.
In Kirtsaeng v. As technology and markets have shifted, libraries employing CDL seek to use technology to hold up that same balance of rights while allowing users to access materials in formats that are most meaningful to them today. CDL promotes consumer choice in formats and platforms, while avoiding dragging courts into the thicket of restrictions and rights conflicts that would require extensive litigation to resolve. Under CDL, if one copy is purchased, a library can only lend one copy—either print or physical—out to a user at a time. There are no cases on point directly addressing the interaction between Section and fair use.
There are a few cases in the commercial context that come close, however. Those cases are primarily negative, though as we explain below we believe they are distinguishable from CDL applications, and one case is currently on appeal. ReDigi Inc. Upon sale through the ReDigi marketplace, the file would be downloaded to the purchaser and simultaneously deleted from the Cloud Locker.
It did not, however, assess the two provisions together. For fair use, the ReDigi court was fairly dismissive of the purpose factor, focusing almost exclusive on the commerciality of the program. The analysis was brief and considered almost none of the arguments laid out above. In honing in on the commerciality of the use, the court found that the purpose and character of the use weighed against a fair use finding.
For instance, in Wall Data Inc. More recently, in Disney Enterprises, Inc. VidAngel , Inc. For each user, VidAngel would purchase a physical DVD on behalf of the user, which VidAngel then copied, edited and streamed to the user online. VidAngel conceded that its use was commercial, and the court did not consider the use to be transformative. Like with Wall Data, the streams were provided for videos with known copyright owners who themselves license rights to competing streaming services.
One way these cases are distinguished is just that the issue was not raised; except for ReDigi where the issue was only obliquely argued , first sale and the purpose and character assessment were not raised by the litigants or addressed by the court. The argument was not presented.
Another, more significant distinguishing factor is that all three cases involved commercial uses, both in the specific application and in connection with a broader, functioning market place for the works used. This brings us to the second characteristic of CDL that we believe tilts the first factor analysis decidedly in favor of fair use: Libraries engaging in CDL are doing so for non-commercial research and learning purposes. Unlike commercial resale or streaming markets, library use of CDL is non-commercial and designed to promote public benefits by facilitating research and learning.
Libraries engaging in CDL, as we envision it, will not generate monetary profit. Given the costs of digitizing, building and maintaining the technical infrastructure necessary to lending digitally and controlling physical copies, and personnel time used to restrict print copies when its digital equivalent is circulating, libraries may spend considerable sums with no compensation. To be sure, libraries and their users would stand to benefit from CDL. We would not propose it if they did not. But under the CDL model we envision, libraries have already paid the customary price, and CDL limits access to a work to one person at a time.
Further, when 20 th century books are in question, no market has emerged for digital access to the majority of these books, meaning that no digital access would otherwise be possible. Libraries engaging in CDL are doing so to enable broad availability of knowledge for the purpose of promoting research, scholarship and learning.
These are uses specifically mentioned as examples of fair use by Congress in the statute,  and are at the core of the constitutional purpose of the copyright system. Library lending is a critical conduit for those activities, which courts have recognized. For example, in a case before the U. In summary, we view the purpose and character of the use for CDL to be favored because the purpose is aligned with the principles of another statutory exception section , while the use itself is temporary, non-commercial and leading to important public benefits in research and learning.
Our goal with this paper is to give libraries and their counsel as complete a view of the law regarding CDL as we can. The first is, despite the strong trend found in the above cases favoring library and educational use, there are a limited number of library fair use cases from which to draw guidance. These include some cases involving academic or scholarly uses in which courts have held that the first factor did not favor the use.
This is a general caution, and could be said for any new application of fair use to library practice. The second and more considerable point of concern is that CDL is not clearly transformative. In recent years, U. In mass digitization cases involving books— Google Books and HathiTrust, for example — courts have largely focused on how those projects enabled transformative access to information by enabling text search, as well as research uses such as text and data mining.
However, even if CDL is not transformative,  we believe the purpose and character still strongly weighs in favor of a fair use finding. Nevertheless, the court concluded that that the use was fair, and favored under the first fair use factor in part because of is alignment with other statutorily favored purposes under Section The court in Swatch similarly expressed doubts about whether the use was transformative, but nevertheless concluded that the public benefit and information dissemination purposes—aligned as the Court noted with SEC regulatory guidance—was a favored purpose.
HathiTrust is particularly instructive for CDL because like HathiTrust, the use here is aligned with other Congressionally-sanctioned information policies, the use is non-commercial, and it is aimed at opening up access to readers for research and learning purposes. In cases such as with CDL, where the purpose of the use so well aligns with the overall purposes of the Act, transformative use considerations should not override. Use in those cases risks undercutting the economic incentives that are at the core of the copyright system by allowing others to scoop the initial publication of the work.
Similarly, courts have found that use of out-of-print works that are unavailable in the marketplace would tend to weigh in favor of the use under the second factor. For CDL, application of the second factor in the abstract is difficult. Library collections include a wide variety of works for which CDL may be used, some of which will fare more or less favorably under the second factor. Given the limited usefulness of this factor in the overall fair use assessment, we do not believe the nature of the work should be determinative.
Nevertheless, some considerations about the nature of the selected works may be helpful for libraries that seek to bolster their overall fair use assertion. These considerations may include applying CDL to works that are out of print, either in print or digitally; of a scholarly or scientific nature, as opposed to popular literature or fiction works; compilations of data e. We offer some operational suggestions about these practices in Part IV of this paper.
However, courts have clearly tied the assessment under the third factor to the purpose and character assessment. For CDL, the purpose of the use is to enable full-text access to books, so readers can read them online. Arguably, that means the entire work is used. However, CDL does place limits on use of the work; it imposes temporal limits on use loans are not indefinite and calls for technological controls on copying that limit further dissemination.
These limitations are in many ways similar, for example, to situations in which search engines have been found to have made fair use with low-resolution images. The fourth fair use factor is tied closely together with the first factor analysis. In conducting the analysis, courts have looked at not only market effects for the particular work in the format used, but also at effects on the much broader set of potential licensing markets that may have been usurped by the use.
Courts have acknowledged that examining licensing markets introduces a degree of circularity; in theory the fact that a use was made at all indicates a potential licensing market that the rightsholder could have exploited. For CDL, the primary reason why the market harm factor weighs in favor of the use is because the market effect of CDL is near ly identical to the market effect already favored under the first sale doctrine.
For the works at issue, the controls that CDL requires ensure that the use closely matches the market effect that the rightsholder was already compensated for upon first sale of the book. A secondary consideration, but one that we feel is powerful and where the case for CDL is strongest, that at least for the 20 th Century books which make up the bulk of materials that would benefit from CDL, there is not a functioning market in place to be harmed. For example, the Copyright Act does not grant a copyright owner the right to control negative commentary or criticism of its work,  uses favored under the first factor.
If criticism results in lost sales, is not the type of harm recognized under the fourth fair use factor. The first sale doctrine itself is intended as a limit on the scope of markets that rightsholders can control. Thus, CDL does not negatively affect the market any differently than the uses already permitted by libraries when lending books physically.
A library that owns a single copy of a book could only lend a single copy out at a time. If the digital version is checked out and viewed by a patron, the corresponding physical version must be restricted and controlled e. Likewise, mimicking the restraints on physical materials in which only one user can typically check out and read a physical book at a time, only one user would be permitted to check out and read the digital book at any given time. From a single transaction standpoint, the library making the CDL use must still have acquired legitimately the book in physical format before lending.
What CDL does is allow a change of the format in which that lend is made. When the digital copy is being read by a patron, however, the physical copy is restricted and unavailable for consultation, so there is no situation in which the library is getting use of two copies for the price of one. Similarly, for the aggregated effect question—what if everyone did it? We acknowledge that these controls do not address the full range of market concerns raised by others. In the context of broader debates about digital first sale, the primary objections raised by rightsholders were related to market disruption.
The two primary collections of these objections are the U. Copyright Office report addressing digital first sale, and a similar and updated U. O report. And, in the few cases where these issues have been raised in litigation most recently in cases involved mp3 sales and streaming videos courts have found it necessary to address the issues raised in those reports. We address each below. Ultimately, we conclude that none should pose an obstacle to well-designed controlled digital lending system. While we do not believe libraries implementing CDL must respond to these concerns, a conservative CDL system may take these factors into account.
We identify ways to do so in Part IV of this paper. For loans out to patrons in other locations, interlibrary loan adds an additional layer of delay. For digital transactions factors such as time and space no longer act as major impediments to transfer.
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The question is, should they, in order to more closely mimic the physical lending environment that exists with print? By its terms, the Copyright Act does not grant rightsholders a right to transactional friction, nor does the Copyright Act freeze in time the historical conditions under which copies are bought and sold or lent. Amazon has dramatically altered the used book market, removing barriers to the flow of those books. Such advancements have already occurred; advances in interlibrary loan services such as RapidILL and BorrowDirect mean books now move quickly and seamlessly between libraries in dramatically less time than in the s when the Copyright Act was enacted.
But those markets do not belong to the copyright holder. We do acknowledge, however, that the first sale doctrine was developed by the courts and embraced by Congress in the context of a physical environment where transaction costs were high. With that argument is the implicit suggestion that, like the friction discussed above, degradation was implicitly calculated into the balance of rights Congress arrived at when codifying the first sale doctrine. For one, this argument fails to appreciate that for long-term digital copies do degrade and require significant effort to maintain.
Systems need to be migrated periodically, and platforms updated to interact with current technology. HathiTrust, for example, reports replacing storage hardware every years. So, the stored digital copy used for lending does degrade over time and in reaction to use, just in ways that are not entirely analogous to the more gradual and straightforward entropy of the physical book.
Those facts aside, to our knowledge no court has ever tied the application of the first sale doctrine to a required, planned degradation of the format in which the copy exists. Libraries can lend brand new books in perfect condition just as they can older, tattered ones, many of which are repaired and rebound by library staff or volunteers.
Since the first recognition of the first sale doctrine over years ago, the advent of acid-free paper, improved binding technology, media such as microform and magnetic tape and other innovations have extended the life of physical works dramatically. Driven in part by a lack of market availability, libraries repair, strengthen, and rebind many books in their collections, in large part because replacements cannot be purchased.
The idea has no connection to the statutory or judicial development of the rationale for first sale, and it fails to account for how digital storage and transmission do encounter degradation that is consistent with if not more severe than physical degradation. Finally, the third market-harm concern is that digital distribution raises greatly increased risks of piracy. In its report addressing digital first sale, the U.
Courts have taken security concerns seriously. HathiTrust , for example, the Second Circuit gave considerable attention to the security precautions HathiTrust had put into place for the digitized volumes in its collection. Digital distribution of copyrighted works is exceedingly common. For CDL, we see the risks as no greater than any other digital transaction.
Publishers regularly license electronic books for digital distribution without any discernable market premium added to account for the additional risk of impermissible downstream copying. For libraries, security issues should be taken seriously, which they are by design through the six CDL controls described above. Like the approach taken by HathiTrust, the repository of digital copies must be secured from unintended access. Going even beyond the HathiTrust case, CDL would require physical access to works be restricted as well, while digital copies are lent.
In addition, the files lent must be controlled in some significant way e. Many publishers use and are comfortable with security implemented through systems like Overdrive, or using Adobe Digital Editions. For CDL, the most effective and defensible approach may be to use those very same copy and piracy controls that publishers themselves employ for distribution of their licensed e-book content. Finally, a secondary but important reason why CDL would fare well under the market harm analysis is because it addresses a broad market failure, particularly with respect to the 20 th century books that are generally not available in digital formats.
For these 20 th century books, we believe the fair use argument is strongest. The most significant market failure for these books is with truly orphaned works—i. But the 20 th century book market suffers from market failure even when owners are known. Failure of rightsholders to exploit the e-book market likely has many causes. Some of those are production-related transaction costs, some are due to the complex thickets of rights associated with each work,  and some are likely due just to competing priorities.
In all such cases, books are not commercially available in digital form. High transaction costs make it economically unviable for a willing rightsholder and a willing user to negotiate for a sale. For example, in Cambridge University Press v. Patton , a group of publishers sued Georgia State University, claiming that university-uploaded excerpts of books to the course e-reserves practices constituted copyright infringement.
The Eleventh Circuit found this significant in weighing the fourth factor:. In such a case, there is little damage to the publisher's market when someone makes use of the work in that way without obtaining a license, and hence the fourth factor should generally weigh in favor of fair use. Even copying for noncommercial purposes may impair the copyright holder's ability to obtain the rewards that Congress intended him to have.
But a use that has no demonstrable effect upon the potential market for, or the value of, the copyrighted work need not be prohibited in order to protect the author's incentive to create. The prohibition of such noncommercial uses would merely inhibit access to ideas without any countervailing benefit. For print-only books, the potential e-book market has been available for nearly 20 years. Publishers have by and large not exploited that market, for various reasons. Publishers have largely not even maintained a print market presence, allowing books to devolve to out-of-print status quickly.
Several studies have suggested that copyright may reduce the availability of books generally. So, for books published in this time period as a whole, there is a strong argument that they collectively represent a market failure. Part of that failure is due to high costs of determining commercial availability for any given work.
The costs of searching and identifying which works are out of print, orphaned, or not available in e-book format is costly itself. However, we believe that there is sufficient data for assessment of commercial availability that can be leveraged for CDL to maximize the case that these particular titles within this 20 th century focus are unavailable either in print or electronically.
Those, we believe, present the very best case for CDL uses. Libraries thinking about CDL will encounter risk, both positive and negative. And this is typical, in the U. Why such a difference between the two reports? Well, let me give you a parallel situation, on a much smaller scale. Suppose I own a dress shop. You come in to visit me, and for fun you count the number of dresses I have in the shop. It turns out I have Upon your return, you count, again for fun, how many dresses I have in the shop now —one month later.
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Not 5 vs. In Conclusion, for Now Job-hunting is not a science; it is an art. Some job-hunters know instinctively how to do it; in some cases, they were born knowing how to do it. Others of us sometimes have a harder time with it, but fortunately for us in the U. Job-hunting is always mysterious. Sometimes mind-bogglingly mysterious.
You may never understand why things sometimes work, and sometimes do not. Anything may work under certain circumstances, or at certain times, or with certain employers. There are only degrees of likelihood of certain job-hunting techniques working or not working. But it is crucial to know that likelihood see chapter 6.
Anything may fail to work under certain circumstances, or at certain times, or with certain employers. But it is crucial to know that likelihood, as we just saw. Job-hunting always depends on some amount of luck. Job-hunting is, or should be, a full-time job. If you want to devote as little time to your job-hunt as possible, then fine; try it. By the way, there is an app for your iPhone or Android that helps you stay on track by nudging you about your job- hunting activities each day.
Its author is Marshall J. Its display may show only one column, but there are actually three columns; swipe left or right to see the other two. The left column is the one you most want. Nice app! Going after large organizations only such as the Fortune Hunting all by yourself for places to visit.
Doing no homework on an organization before going there. Allowing the Human Resources department to interview you their primary function is to look for reasons to screen you OUT. Setting no time limit when you first begin the interview, and then overstaying your welcome. Letting your resume be the only agenda discussed during the job-interview. Talking primarily about yourself throughout the interview, and what benefit the job will be for you. Failing to give examples of the skills you claim you have. Basically approaching the employer as if you were a job-beggar, hoping they will offer you any kind of a job, however humble.
Not sending a thank-you note right after the interview. I can think of three kinds of interviews right off the bat, that arise during a job-hunt which I touched on in chapter 1. They are distinguished from each other by what you are looking for, and more importantly, who you are talking to: 1.
Interviews for fun or practice. Here you are talking with people who are passionate about something that you are, too —be it Hawaii, scrapbooks, travel, physical fitness, running, or whatever. Okay, then: conversations. Interviews for a job, where you are talking with employers, and most particularly with the person who actually has the power to hire you for the job you want, rather than an HR interviewer whose first job is to screen out as many candidates as possible.
You want information. Well, I would.
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This chapter is going to be about this third kind of interview or conversation: the one for a job. Many via Skype. Load it onto your computer, test it by calling a friend. See how you come across; get honest feedback, not just backstroking. In any event, there are sixteen tips about the hiring conversation s , at one particular place, that you would do well to keep in mind: Conversation Tip 1 There is no such thing as "employers. Those two. Those six.
Or those twelve. They hardly speak for all twenty-two million active businesses that are out there. You cannot possibly predict the attitude of one employer from the attitude of another. Fact: There are millions of separate, distinct, unrelated employers out there with very different requirements for hiring. Unless you look dirty, wild, and disreputable, and smell really bad, if you know what your talent is, I guarantee some employer is looking for you.
You have to keep going. Some employers out there do want you, no matter what the others think. Your job is to find them. Fact: There is a big difference between large employers those with hundreds or thousands of employees and small employers alternately defined as those with 25 or fewer employees, or as those with 50 or fewer employees, or—the most common definition—as those with or fewer employees. Fact: There is a big difference between new companies or enterprises. A recent study by the Bureau of Labor Statistics found that newer companies with fewer than employees, which were less than five years old, created a net gain of 1.
Conversation Tip 2 An interview or series of interviews, there should be prepared for, before you ever go in. Naturally, you want to go into the interview s with this employer curious to know more about you, but the employer is first of all curious about what you know about them. Do a lot of research on them before you go in.
Because organizations love to be loved. It may make the difference between your being hired, or not being hired. Find out everything you can about them. Google them. And, finally, ask all your friends if they know anyone who ever worked there, or works there still, so you can take them to lunch or tea or Starbucks and find out any inside stories, before you approach the place. Better to know that now, than later. Conversation Tip 3 Honor agreements.
If it was you who asked for the interview, not them, remove their dread of this visit by specifying how much time you are asking of them. You are the one in control of how long the interview lasts. Specify some oddball period, like nineteen minutes twenty sounds vague, nineteen sounds precise—like you are really serious. If they grant you the interview, keep to this time limit as though your life depended on it.
It builds trust. You mean what you say. Wait for the time you actually are about to enter their office for the interview, then activate it by tapping it on or go. Keep the phone in a pocket or purse, where you can feel it. Begs, BEGS. Just graciously go. Of course, if it was they who invited you in for the interview, then it is up to them as to how long the interview lasts.
Conversation Tip 4 An interview for a job is a lot like dating. I remind you of what I said in the previous chapter: The other human activity job-hunting most resembles is dating, not marketing a used car. What the employer decides is critical, of course; but so is what you decide. This interview is a data-collecting process for the employer. Do we want you to work here?
Do you have the skills, knowledge, or experience that we really need? Do you have the work-ethic that we are looking for? And, how will you fit in with our other employees?
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But, this interview is part of your data-collecting process, too—the one you have been engaged in, or should have been engaged in, throughout your whole job-hunt. Do I want to work here, or not? Not in the beginning. Let me emphasize this: your side of the conversation or conversations has two steps to it. Conversation Tip 5 Questions to expect from them, then questions you can ask. So, here are some key points to keep in mind about your answer to Tell me about yourself : a. With this question they are giving you a kind of test. They want to see how you respond to an open-ended, unstructured situation, the kind of unanticipated challenge that life and a job are continually presenting to each of us.
Employers feel you have flunked the test if you respond with a question instead of any answer. They interpret this to mean you have no idea what to answer, and are stalling for time. What employers are looking for here, is an answer to a somewhat different question, than the one they posed. That unspoken real question the employer has, is: What experience, skills, or knowledges do you have, that are relevant to the job I am trying to fill?
Not your personal history, where you grew up, your tastes, or hobbies. Employers want your work history, and more particularly your work history as it relates to this job that you are discussing with them. Then, of course, during the interview s you will want to emphasize and demonstrate that you have those three—for the job that you are applying for. In the length of time it takes to ride an elevator up a tall building, you should be able to give your entire answer to this question, rehearsed and rehearsed beforehand, until you could say it in your sleep.
Okay, what other questions may you expect the employer to ask you, during your interview there? Books on interviewing, of which there are many, often publish long lists of questions employers may ask you, along with some timeworn, semiclever answers. As we have seen. Or, Why were you fired if you were? And their lists go on. But really there are only five basic questions that you need pay attention to. The people-who-have-the-power-to-hire-you are most curious about your answers to these five, which they may ask directly or try to find out without even mentioning the questions per se: 1.
What are your skills, and how much do you know about the subject or field that our organization is in? This is the case, as I said, even if the interview begins and ends with these five questions never once being mentioned explicitly by the employer. Nonetheless, these questions are still floating beneath the surface of the conversation, beneath all the things being discussed. This is a two- way conversation, remember? You have questions too. And—no surprise! Here is what you are probably quietly thinking about during your half of the conversation: 1.
You want to know if they have the kind of personalities that would enable you to accomplish your best work. For example, if you are good at analyzing problems, how do you do that? Or 3 By consulting with greater authorities in the field? You see the point. Key things to know: it should always take place at the end of the interviews there, and whoever mentions a salary figure first, generally loses, in the negotiation. You will probably want to ask questions one and two out loud. You should observe quietly the answer to question three. You will be prepared to make the case for questions four and five, when the appropriate time in the interview arises.
How do you first raise these questions of yours, if you initiated the interview? In that case, these five questions change form only slightly. They get changed into five statements, that you make to the person-who-has-the-power-to-creafe-this-job. You tell them what you like about this organization. You tell them what skills seem to you to be necessary in order to meet such needs, and you give them brief stories from your past experience that demonstrate you have those very skills.
You tell them what is unique about the way you perform those skills. Every prospective employer wants to know what makes you different from nineteen or nine hundred other people who can do the same kind of work as you. You have to know what that is. And then not merely talk about it, but actually demonstrate it by the way you conduct your side of the hiring-interview. And you tell them how the hiring of you will not cost them, in the long run. You need to be prepared to demonstrate that you will, in the long run, bring in more money than the salary they pay you. Emphasize this! That is, half the time they let the employer do the talking, half the time in the interview s they do the talking.
My hunch as to the reason why this is so, is that if you talk too much about yourself, you come across as one who would ignore the needs of the organization; if you talk too little, you come across as trying to hide something about your background. Conversation Tip 8 The employer is primarily concerned about risk. As I mentioned earlier, employers hate risks. In which case, you are going to cost the employer a lot of money. So, during the interview, you may think you are sitting there, scared to death, while the employer individual or team is sitting there, blase and confident.
But in actual fact you and they may both be quite anxious. That if hired, it may take you too long to master the job, and thus it will be too long before you turn a profit for that organization. That you will only do the minimum that you can get away with, rather than the maximum that the boss was hoping for. Since every boss these days is trying to keep their workforce smaller than it was before , they are hoping for the maximum productivity from each new hire post That you will always have to be told what to do next, rather than displaying initiative.
In the end, what employers want to hire are people who can bring in more money than they are paid. Therefore, the main thing the employer is trying to figure out during the hiring-interview with you, is: will you be part of the solution there, or just another part of the problem. But the employer isn't listening.
Because, sitting across from you, they are noticing things about you, that will kill the interview. And the job offer. I think of this as losing to mosquitoes when you were prepared to fight dragons. And losing in the first two minutes ouch. Simply this. The best interviewers operate intuitively on the principle that microcosm reveals macrocosm. They scrutinize your past, as in your resume, for the same reason: microcosm your behavior in the past reveals macrocosm your likely behavior in the future. Your appearance and personal habits. Employers have become super-sensitive these days to the fact that many employees and employers!
Now, to be sure, not all tattoos are offensive. Tattoos are everywhere these days: on movie stars, singers, dancers, athletes, and everyday people. Some body art is tiny and discrete. It is found on a site for ex-offenders, but so what? It is found at the site: www. Nervous mannerisms. Lack of self-confidence. The consideration you show to other people. At the moment I receive approximately one such letter.. Your values. Sorry to report this, but take it seriously! One favor I ask of you: do not write me, telling me how picayune or asinine some of this is.
I know that. And how it affects your chances of getting hired. Yes, you control and can change every one of these factors. Go back and read the list and see! Conversation Tip 10 Be aware of the skills most employers are looking for, these days, regardless of the position you are seeking. So, plan on claiming all of these that you legitimately can, and prior to the interview, sit down, make a list, and jot down some experience you have had, for each, that proves you have that skill.
Conversation Tip 11 Try to think of some way to bring evidence of your skills, to the hiring-interview. For example, if you are an artist, a craftsperson, or anyone who produces a product, try to bring a sample of what you have made or produced—in scrapbook or portfolio form, on a flashdrive, on YouTube, in photos, or if you are a programmer, examples of your code.
And so on. Conversation Tip 12 Do not bad-mouth your previous employer s during the interview, even if they were terrible people. Employers sometimes feel as though they are a fraternity or sorority. During the interview you want to come across as one who displays courtesy toward all members of that fraternity or sorority. Bad-mouthing a previous employer only makes this employer who is interviewing you, worry about what you would say about them, after they hire you.
I learned this in my own experience. I once spoke graciously about a previous employer during a job-interview.
Unbeknownst to me, the interviewer already knew that my previous employer had badly mistreated me. In fact, he never forgot this incident; talked about it for years afterward. Hope it never happens again. Legally, U. They cannot ask about such things as your creed, religion, race, age, sexual orientation, or marital status. But, any other questions about your past are fair game. Or is afraid there is something wrong with you, and is hoping you will blurt it out.
You are a good employee, as you have proved in the past at your other jobs. Give the briefest history of who you are, where born and raised. Keep it to two minutes, max. In describing your work history, use any honest phrases you can about your work history, that are self-complimentary: "Hard worker. If the employer hasn't described the job at all. Say whatever positive things you possibly can about your former boss and co- workers without telling lies.
Difficult to say why. Even if they never mention it, you can try to disarm that fear. You can find a way to say, "My productivity always exceeded other workers, in my previous jobs. You will stick with this job as tong as you and the employer agree this is where you should be. It's a step up—from welfare. Mention a weakness and then stress its positive aspect, e. Distant past: e. Immediate past: e. Present: e.
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Immediate future: e. Distant future: e. In fact, recent research shows that the quality of the supervisor may be more important than the experience and individual attributes of the workers themselves. Whose responsibility is it to see that I get the training I need, here, to get up to speed? How would I be evaluated, how often, and by whom? What were the strengths and weaknesses of previous people in this position? Optional What do you wish you had known about this company before you started here?
Conversation Tip 15 Before you leave the final interview there, assuming you have decided that you like them and maybe they like you, there are five questions you should always ask: 1. I only know that it is. You want to nail it down. Now you want to know: what is the worst-case scenario? Turned out he was dead serious. But most employers appreciate your offering them what is in essence a safety net. They know they can get busy, become overwhelmed with other things, forget their promise to you.
Optional "Can you think of anyone else who might be interested in my skills and experience? Jot down any answers they give you, then stand up, thank them sincerely for their time, give a firm handshake, and leave. If you do have to contact them after that date, and if they tell you things are still up in the air, you should gently ask questions 2, 3, and 4, all over again. Conversation Tip 16 Every expert on interviewing will tell you two things: 1. Most job-hunters ignore this advice. Indeed, it is safe to say that it is the most overlooked step in the entire job-hunting process.
If you want to stand out from the others applying for the same job, send thank-you notes—to everyone you met there, that day. Ask if they have a business card, and if not, ask them to write out their name and address. Do this with secretaries who often hold the keys to the kingdom as well as with your interviewer. If you need any additional encouragement to send thank-you letters besides the fact that it may get you the job , here are six more reasons for sending a thank-you note, especially to the one who interviewed you: First, you were presenting yourself as one who has good skills with people.
Your actions with respect to the job-interview must back this claim up. Sending a thank-you note does that. The employer can see you are good with people; you remembered to thank them. Second, it helps the employer recall who you are. Third, if a committee will be involved in the hiring process, but only one member was at the first interview, the man or woman who first interviewed you has something to show the others on the committee.
Fourth, if the interview went rather well, and the employer seemed to show an interest in further talks, the thank-you note can reiterate your interest in further talks. Fifth, the thank-you note gives you an opportunity to correct any wrong impression you left behind. You can add anything you forgot to tell them, that you want them to know. And from among all the things you two discussed, you can underline the two or three points that you most want to stand out in their minds.
In the thank-you note, you can mention this, and ask them to please let you know if they hear of anything anywhere. If this was a kind man or woman who interviewed you, they may send you additional leads. Conclusion There is no magic in job-hnnting. No techniques work all the time.
I hear regularly from job-hunters who report that they paid attention to all the tips I have mentioned in this chapter and the book, and are quite skilled at securing interviews—but they never get hired. Sometimes it is because there are levels of screening, some within your sight, some beyond your sight. You are cheered, of course, by the ease with which you get these interviews. Only one small problem remains: the state or the federal government gives funds to this organization, and has mandated that this position be opened to all.
So this manager must pretend to interview ten candidates, including his favorite, as though the job opening were still available. But, he intended, from the beginning, to reject the other nine and give the job to his favorite. You were selected for the honor of being among those nine rejectees. You will, of course, be baffled as to why you got turned down. Trouble is, you will never know. On the other hand, maybe no games are being played.
You are getting rejected, at place after place, because there is something really wrong with the way you are coming across, during these hiring-interviews. Employers will rarely ever tell you this. If you feel daring, there is a strategy you can try. I said may. You can always try phoning, reminding them of who you are, and then asking the following question—deliberately kept generalized, vague, unrelated to just that place, and above all, future-directed.
Their legal advisor, if they have one, will certainly advise against it. Now I only give it to those who can use it. If so, thank them from the bottom of your heart, no matter how painful their feedback is. Such advice, seriously heeded, can bring about just the changes in your interviewing strategy that you most need, in order to win during interviews in the future. And if you do get the job, make one resolution to yourself right there, on the spot: plan to keep track of your accomplishments at this new job, on a weekly basis—jotting them down, every weekend, in your own private log.
Career experts recommend you do this without fail. Go after new, small organizations with fewer than fifty employees, at first, since they create nearly two-thirds of all new jobs. Hunt for places to interview using the aid of, say, eighty friends and acquaintances—because a job-hunt requires eighty pairs of eyes and ears.
But first do homework on yourself so you can tell them exactly what you are looking for. This is discussed further in chapter 8. Employ Linkedln. See chapter 9. Do thorough homework on an organization before going there, using Informational Interviews see chapter 9 plus the Internet to find out as much about them as you possibly can.
If you have a public library in town, ask there too. Then prepare for the interview with your own agenda, your own questions and curiosities about whether or not this job fits you. This will always impress employers. If you initiated the appointment, ask for just nineteen minutes of their time; and keep to your word strictly.
Watch your watch. When answering a question of theirs, talk only between twenty seconds and two minutes, at any one time. Try to be succinct. Always write a thank-you note the same evening as the interview, and mail it at the latest by early next morning. This in addition to emailing it.
You will stand out from the others if you do both. The other two are discussed at the end of chapter 10 this page-this page. This one was done by a researcher at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, whose name has now been lost in the mists of time. This one was conducted by my friend and colleague, Daniel Porot, of Geneva, Switzerland. Students spend four or more years Learning how to dig data out of the library And other sources. But it rarely occurs to them That they should also apply Some of the same newfound research skill To their own benefit— To looking up information on companies, Types of professions, sections of the country, That might interest them.
It must be discussed, before you finally agree to take the job. I hope you know that. I remember talking to a breathless high school graduate, who was elated at having just landed her first job. She looked startled. I just assume they will pay me a fair wage. Did she get a rude awakening when she received her first paycheck. And thus did she learn.
Indeed, ask and then negotiate. So many of us feel ill prepared to do that. While whole books can be—and have been—written on this subject, there are basically just six secrets to keep in mind. But assuming things are going favorably for you, whether after the first, or second, or third, or fourth interview, if you like them and they increasingly like you, a job offer will be made.
And the question that is on your mind: how much does this job pay? Then you need: Response 2: You may be face-to-face with an employer who demands within the first two minutes of the interview to know what salary you are looking for. That is not good, especially since , as some employers can afford to be really picky, since—in their minds—there is a plentiful bunch of job-hunters to choose from.
You have to come clean. Their beginning figure is their ending figure. No negotiation is possible. This happens, when it does, because many employers since are making salary their major if not sole criterion for deciding who to hire, and who not to hire. And that is that! Microcosm equals macrocosm. Ask what salary they have in mind, and make your decision.
And at that point, the salary will be negotiable. All rights reserved. It all boils down to this: if you really shine during the hiring-interview, they may—at the end—offer you a higher salary than they originally had in mind when the interview started. Why do we have to negotiate?
It would never be necessary if every employer in every hiring- interview were to mention, right from the start, the top figure they are willing to pay for that position. A few employers do. And this creates a range. And that range is what the negotiation is all about. You have every right to try to negotiate the highest salary that employer is willing to pay you, within that range.
Your goal is to bring home to your own household the most money that you can, for the work you will be doing. The Third Secret of Salary Negotiation During Salary Discussion, Never Be the First One to Mention a Salary Figure Where salary negotiation has been successfully kept offstage for much of the interview process, when it finally does come up, you want the employer to be the first one to mention a figure, if you possibly can.
Nobody knows. But it has been observed over the years that where the goals are opposite, as in this case—you are trying to get the employer to pay the most they can, and the employer is trying to pay the least they can—whoever mentions a salary figure first, generally loses. You can speculate from now until the cows come home, as to why this is so. There are a dozen theories. All we really know for sure is that it is true. But experienced ones are very aware of it.